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Sir Hudibras his passing worth,
The manner how he sallied forth;
His arms and equipage are shown;
His horse's virtues, and his own.
Th' adventure of the bear and fiddle
Is sung, but breaks off in the middle.

When civil dudgeon (a) first grew high,
And men fell out they knew not why?
When hard words, jealousies, and fears,
Set folks together by the ears,
And made them fight, like mad or drunk, 5
For Dame Religion, as for punk;
Whose honesty they all durst swear for,
Though not a man of them knew wherefore:
When Gospel-Trumpeter, surrounded
With long-ear'd rout, to battle sounded, 10
And pulpit, drum ecclesiastick,
Was beat with fist, instead of a stick;
Then did Sir Knight abandon dwelling,
And out he rode a colonelling.
A wight he was, whose very sight wou'd 15
Entitle him Mirror of Knighthood;
That never bent his stubborn knee
To any thing but Chivalry;
Nor put up blow, but that which laid
Right worshipful on shoulder-blade; 20
Chief of domestic knights and errant,
Either for cartel or for warrant;
Great on the bench, great in the saddle,
That (b) could as well bind o'er, as swaddle;
Mighty he was at both of these, 25
And styl'd of war, as well as peace.
(So some rats, of amphibious nature,
Are either for the land or water).
But here our authors make a doubt
Whether he were more wise, or stout: 30
Some hold the one, and some the other;
But howsoe'er they make a pother,
The diff'rence was so small, his brain
Outweigh'd his rage but half a grain;
Which made some take him for a tool 35
That knaves do work with, call'd a fool,
And offer to lay wagers that
As MONTAIGNE, (c) playing with his cat,
Complains she thought him but an ass,
Much more she wou'd Sir HUDIBRAS; 40
(For that's the name our valiant knight
To all his challenges did write).
But they're mistaken very much,
'Tis plain enough he was no such;
We grant, although he had much wit, 45
H' was very shy of using it;
As being loth to wear it out,
And therefore bore it not about,
Unless on holy-days, or so,
As men their best apparel do. 50
Beside, 'tis known he could speak GREEK
As naturally as pigs squeek;
That LATIN was no more difficile,
Than to a blackbird 'tis to whistle:
Being rich in both, he never scanted 55
His bounty unto such as wanted;
But much of either would afford
To many, that had not one word.
For Hebrew roots, although they're found
To flourish most in barren ground, 60
He had such plenty, as suffic'd
To make some (d) think him circumcis'd;
And truly so, he was, perhaps,
Not as a proselyte, but for claps.

He was in LOGIC a great critic, 65
Profoundly skill'd in (e) analytic;
He could distinguish, and divide
A hair 'twixt south, and south-west side:
On either which he would dispute,
Confute, change hands, and still confute, 70
He'd undertake to prove, by force
Of argument, a man's no horse;
He'd prove a buzzard is no fowl,
And that a lord may be an owl,
A calf an alderman, a goose a justice, 75
And rooks Committee-men and Trustees.
He'd run in debt by disputation,
And pay with ratiocination.
All this by syllogism, true
In mood and figure, he would do. 80
For RHETORIC, he could not ope
His mouth, but out there flew a trope;
And when he happen'd to break off
I' th' middle of his speech, or cough,
H' had hard words,ready to show why, 85
And tell what rules he did it by;
Else, when with greatest art he spoke,
You'd think he talk'd like other folk,
For all a rhetorician's rules
Teach nothing but to name his tools. 90
His ordinary rate of speech
In loftiness of sound was rich;
A Babylonish (f)dialect,
Which learned pedants much affect.
It was a parti-colour'd dress 95
Of patch'd and pie-bald languages;
'Twas English cut on Greek and Latin,
Like fustian heretofore on satin;
It had an odd promiscuous tone,
As if h' had talk'd three parts in one; 100
Which made some think, when he did gabble,
Th' had heard three labourers of Babel;
Or (g) CERBERUS himself pronounce
A leash of languages at once.
This he as volubly would vent 105
As if his stock would ne'er be spent:
And truly, to support that charge,
He had supplies as vast and large;
For he cou'd coin, or counterfeit
New words, with little or no wit: 110
Words so debas'd and hard, no stone
Was hard enough to touch them on;
And when with hasty noise he spoke 'em,
The ignorant for current took 'em;
That had the (h) orator, who once 115
Did fill his mouth with pebble stones
When he harangu'd, but known his phrase
He would have us'd no other ways.
In MATHEMATICKS he was greater
Than (i) TYCHO BRAHE, or ERRA PATER: 120
For he, by geometric scale,
Could take the size of pots of ale;
Resolve, by sines and tangents straight,
If bread or butter wanted weight,
And wisely tell what hour o' th' day 125
The clock does strike by algebra.
Beside, he was a shrewd PHILOSOPHER,
And had read ev'ry text and gloss over;
Whate'er the crabbed'st author hath,
He understood b' implicit faith: 130
Whatever (k) sceptic could inquire for,
For ev'ry why he had a wherefore;
Knew more than forty of them do,
As far as words and terms cou'd go.
All which he understood by rote, 135
And, as occasion serv'd, would quote;
No matter whether right or wrong,
They might be either said or sung.
His notions fitted things so well,
That which was which he could not tell; 140
But oftentimes mistook th' one
For th' other, as great clerks have done.
He could (l) reduce all things to acts,
And knew their natures by abstracts;
Where entity and quiddity, 145
The ghosts of defunct bodies fly;
Where (m) truth in person does appear,
Like words (n) congeal'd in northern air.
He knew what's what, and that's as high
As metaphysic wit can fly; 150
In school-divinity as able
As (o) he that hight, Irrefragable;
A second (p) THOMAS, or, at once,
To name them all, another DUNCE:
Profound in all the Nominal 155
And Real ways, beyond them all:
For he a rope of sand cou'd twist
As (q) tough as learned SORBONIST;
And weave fine cobwebs, fit for skull
That's empty when the moon is full; 160
Such as take lodgings in a head
That's to be let unfurnished.
He could raise scruples dark and nice,
And after solve 'em in a trice;
As if Divinity had catch'd 165
The itch, on purpose to be scratch'd;
Or, like a mountebank, did wound
And stab herself with doubts profound,
Only to show with how small pain
The sores of Faith are cur'd again; 170
Although by woeful proof we find,
They always leave a scar behind.
He knew (r) the seat of Paradise,
Could tell in what degree it lies;
And, as he was dispos'd, could prove it, 175
Below the moon, or else above it.
What Adam dreamt of, when his bride
Came from her closet in his side:
Whether the devil tempted her
By a (s) High Dutch interpreter; 180
If either of them (t) had a navel:
Who first (u) made music malleable:
Whether the serpent, at the fall,
Had cloven feet, or none at all.
All this, without a gloss, or comment, 185
He could unriddle in a moment,
In proper terms, such as men smatter
When they throw out, and miss the matter.

For his Religion, it was fit
To match his learning and his wit; 190
'Twas Presbyterian true blue;
For he was of that stubborn crew
Of errant saints, whom all men grant
To be the true Church Militant;
Such as do build their faith upon 195
The holy text of pike and gun;
Decide all controversies by
Infallible artillery;
And prove their doctrine orthodox
By apostolic blows and knocks; 200
Call fire and sword and desolation,
A godly thorough reformation,
Which always must be carried on,
And still be doing, never done;
As if religion were intended 205
For nothing else but to be mended.
A sect, whose chief devotion lies
In odd perverse antipathies;
In falling out with that or this,
And finding somewhat still amiss; 210
More peevish, cross, and splenetick,
Than dog distract, or monkey sick.
That with more care keep holy-day
The wrong, than others the right way;
Compound for sins they are inclin'd to, 215
By damning those they have no mind to:
Still so perverse and opposite,
As if they worshipp'd God for spite.
The self-same thing they will abhor
One way, and long another for. 220
Free-will they one way disavow,
Another, nothing else allow:
All piety consists therein
In them, in other men all sin:
Rather than fail, they will defy 225
That which they love most tenderly;
Quarrel with minc'd-pies, and disparage
Their best and dearest friend, plum-porridge;
Fat pig and goose itself oppose,
And blaspheme custard through the nose. 230
Th' apostles of this fierce religion,
Like MAHOMET'S, (w) were ass and pidgeon,
To whom our knight, by fast instinct
Of wit and temper, was so linkt,
As if hypocrisy and nonsense 235
Had got th' advowson of his conscience.

Thus was he gifted and accouter'd;
We mean on th' inside, not the outward;
That next of all we shall discuss:
Then listen, Sirs, it follows thus 240
His tawny beard was th' equal grace
Both of his wisdom and his face;
In cut and dye so like a tile,
A sudden view it would beguile:
The upper part thereof was whey; 245
The nether, orange mix'd with grey.
This hairy meteor did denounce
The fall of scepters and of crowns;
With grisly type did represent
Declining age of government; 250
And tell with hieroglyphick spade,
Its own grave and the state's were made.
Like SAMPSON'S heart-breakers, it grew
In time to make a nation rue;
Tho' it contributed its own fall, 255
To wait upon the publick downfal,
It was (x) monastick, and did grow
In holy orders by strict vow;
Of rule as sullen and severe
As that of rigid Cordeliere. 260
'Twas bound to suffer persecution
And martyrdom with resolution;
T' oppose itself against the hate
And vengeance of th' incensed state;
In whose defiance it was worn, 265
Still ready to be pull'd and torn;
With red-hot irons to be tortur'd;
Revil'd, and spit upon, and martyr'd.
Maugre all which, 'twas to stand fast
As long as monarchy shou'd last; 270
But when the state should hap to reel,
'Twas to submit to fatal steel,
And fall, as it was consecrate,
A sacrifice to fall of state;
Whose thread of life the fatal sisters 275
Did twist together with its whiskers,
And twine so close, that time should never,
In life or death, their fortunes sever;
But with his rusty sickle mow
Both down together at a blow. 280
So learned TALIACOTIUS (y) from
The brawny part of porter's bum
Cut supplemental noses, which
Wou'd last as long as parent breech;
But when the date of NOCK was out, 285
Off drop'd the sympathetic snout.

His back, or rather burthen, show'd,
As if it stoop'd with its own load:
For as AENEAS (z)bore his sire
Upon his shoulders thro' the fire, 290
Our Knight did bear no less a pack
Of his own buttocks on his back;
Which now had almost got the upper-
Hand of his head, for want of crupper.
To poise this equally, he bore 295
A paunch of the same bulk before;
Which still he had a special care
To keep well-cramm'd with thrifty fare;
As white-pot, butter-milk, and curds,
Such as a country-house affords; 300
With other vittle, which anon
We farther shall dilate upon,
When of his hose we come to treat,
The cupboard where he kept his meat.

His doublet was of sturdy buff, 305
And tho' not sword, yet cudgel-proof;
Whereby 'twas fitter for his use,
Who fear'd no blows, but such as bruise.

His breeches were of rugged woollen,
And had been at the siege of Bullen; 310
To old King HARRY so well known,
Some writers held they were his own.
Thro' they were lin'd with many a piece
Of ammunition bread and cheese,
And fat black-puddings, proper food 315
For warriors that delight in blood.
For, as we said, he always chose
To carry vittle in his hose,
That often tempted rats and mice
The ammunition to surprise: 320
And when he put a hand but in
The one or t' other magazine,
They stoutly in defence on't stood,
And from the wounded foe drew blood;
And 'till th' were storm'd and beaten out, 325
Ne'er left the fortify'd redoubt.
And tho' Knights Errant, as some think,
Of old did neither eat nor drink,
Because, when thorough desarts vast,
And regions desolate, they past, 330
Where belly-timber above ground,
Or under, was not to be found,
Unless they graz'd, there's not one word
Of their provision on record;
Which made some confidently write, 335
They had no stomachs, but to fight.
'Tis false: for (a) ARTHUR wore in hall
Round table like a farthingal,
On which with shirt pull'd out behind,
And eke before, his good Knights din'd. 340
Though 'twas no table, some suppose,
But a huge pair of round trunk hose;
In which he carry'd as much meat
As he and all the Knights cou'd eat,
When, laying by their swords and truncheons, 345
They took their breakfasts, or their nuncheons.
But let that pass at present, lest
We should forget where we digrest,
As learned authors use, to whom
We leave it, and to th' purpose come, 350

His puissant sword unto his side,
Near his undaunted heart, was ty'd;
With basket-hilt, that wou'd hold broth,
And serve for fight and dinner both.
In it he melted lead for bullets, 355
To shoot at foes, and sometimes pullets,
To whom he bore so fell a grutch,
He ne'er gave quarter t' any such.
The trenchant blade, (b) Toledo trusty,
For want of fighting, was grown rusty, 360
And ate unto itself, for lack
Of somebody to hew and hack.
The peaceful scabbard where it dwelt
The rancour of its edge had felt;
For of the lower end two handful 365
It had devour'd, 'twas so manful;
And so much scorn'd to lurk in case,
As if it durst not shew its face.
In many desperate attempts,
Of warrants, exigents, contempts, 370
It had appear'd with courage bolder
Than Serjeant BUM invading shoulder.
Oft had it ta'en possession,
And pris'ners too, or made them run.

This sword a dagger had t' his page, 375
That was but little for his age;
And therefore waited on him so,
As dwarfs upon Knights Errant do.
It was a serviceable dudgeon,
Either for fighting or for drudging. 380
When it had stabb'd, or broke a head,
It would scrape trenchers, or chip bread;
Toast cheese or bacon; tho' it were
To bait a mouse-trap, 'twould not care.
'Twould make clean shoes; and in the earth 385
Set leeks and onions, and so forth.
It had been 'prentice to a brewer,
Where this and more it did endure;
But left the trade, (c) as many more
Have lately done on the same score. 390

In th' holsters, at his saddle-bow,
Two aged pistols he did stow,
Among the surplus of such meat
As in his hose he cou'd not get.
These wou'd inveigle rats with th' scent, 395
To forage when the cocks were bent;
And sometimes catch 'em with a snap
As cleverly as th' ablest trap.
They were upon hard duty still,
And ev'ry night stood centinel, 400
To guard the magazine i' th' hose
From two-legg'd and from four-legg'd foes.

Thus clad and fortify'd, Sir Knight
From peaceful home set forth to fight.
But first with nimble, active force 405
He got on th' outside of his horse;
For having but one stirrup ty'd
T' his saddle, on the further side,
It was so short, h' had much ado
To reach it with his desp'rate toe: 410
But, after many strains and heaves,
He got up to the saddle-eaves,
From whence he vaulted into th' seat,
With so much vigour, strength and heat,
That he had almost tumbled over 415
With his own weight, but did recover,
By laying hold on tail and main,
Which oft he us'd instead of rein.

But now we talk of mounting steed,
Before we further do proceed, 420
It doth behoves us to say something
Of that which bore our valiant bumkin.
The beast was sturdy, large, and tall,
With mouth of meal, and eyes of wall.
I wou'd say eye; for h' had but one, 425
As most agree; tho' some say none.
He was well stay'd; and in his gait
Preserv'd a grave, majestick state.
At spur or switch no more he skipt,
Or mended pace, than Spaniard whipt; 430
And yet so fiery, he wou'd bound
As if he griev'd to touch the ground:
That CAESAR's horse (d), who, as fame goes
Had corns upon his feet and toes,
Was not by half so tender hooft, 435
Nor trod upon the ground so soft.
And as that beast would kneel and stoop
(Some write) to take his rider up,
So HUDIBRAS his ('tis well known)
Wou'd often do to set him down. 440
We shall not need to say what lack
Of leather was upon his back;
For that was hidden under pad,
And breech of Knight, gall'd full as bad.
His strutting ribs on both sides show'd 445
Like furrows he himself had plow'd;
For underneath the skirt of pannel,
'Twixt ev'ry two there was a channel
His draggling tail hung in the dirt,
Which on his rider he wou'd flurt, 450
Still as his tender side he prick'd,
With arm'd heel, or with unarm'd kick'd:
For HUDIBRAS wore but one spur;
As wisely knowing, cou'd he stir
To active trot one side of's horse, 455
The other wou'd not hang an arse.

A squire he had, whose name was RALPH,
That in th' adventure went his half:
Though writers, for more stately tone,
Do call him RALPHO; 'tis all one; 460
And when we can with metre safe,
We'll call him so; if not, plain RALPH:
(For rhyme the rudder is of verses,
With which like ships they steer their courses.)
An equal stock of wit and valour 465
He had laid in; by birth a taylor.
The mighty Tyrian Queen, (e) that gain'd
With subtle shreds a tract of land,
Did leave it with a castle fair
To his great ancestor, her heir. 470
From him descended cross-legg'd Knights,
Fam'd for their faith, and warlike fights
Against the bloody cannibal,
Whom they destroy'd both great and small.
This sturdy Squire, he had, as well 475
As the (f) bold Trojan Knight, seen Hell;
Not with a counterfeited pass
Of golden bough, but true gold-lace.
His knowledge was not far behind
The Knight's, but of another kind, 480
And he another way came by 't:
Some call it GIFTS, and some NEW-LIGHT;
A liberal art, that costs no pains
Of study, industry, or brains.
His wit was sent him for a token, 485
But in the carriage crack'd and broken.
Like commendation nine-pence crook'd,
With - To and from my love - it look'd.
He ne'er consider'd it, as loth
To look a gift-horse in the mouth; 490
And very wisely wou'd lay forth
No more upon it than 'twas worth.
But as he got it freely, so
He spent it frank and freely too.
For Saints themselves will sometimes be 495
Of gifts, that cost them nothing, free.
By means of this, with hem and cough,
Prolongers to enlighten'd stuff,
He cou'd deep mysteries unriddle
As easily as thread a needle. 500
For as of vagabonds we say,
That they are ne'er beside their way;
Whate'er men speak by this New Light,
Still they are sure to be i' th' right.
'Tis a dark-lanthorn of the Spirit, 505
Which none see by but those that bear it:
A light that falls down from on high,
For spiritual trades to cozen by
An Ignis Fatuus, that bewitches
And leads men into pools and ditches, 510
To make them dip themselves, and sound
For Christendom in dirty pond
To dive like wild-fowl for salvation,
And fish to catch regeneration.
This light inspires and plays upon 515
The nose of Saint like bag-pipe drone,
And speaks through hollow empty soul,
As through a trunk, or whisp'ring hole,
Such language as no mortal ear
But spirit'al eaves-droppers can hear: 520
So PHOEBUS, or some friendly muse,
Into small poets song infuse,
Which they at second-hand rehearse,
Thro' reed or bag-pipe, verse for verse.

Thus RALPH became infallible 525
As (g) three or four-legg'd oracle,
The ancient cup, or modern chair;
Spoke truth point-blank, tho' unaware.

For MYSTICK LEARNING, wond'rous able
In (h) magick Talisman and Cabal, 530
Whose primitive tradition reaches
As far (i) as ADAM'S first green breeches:
Deep-sighted in intelligences,
Ideas, atoms, influences;
And much of Terra Incognita, () 535
Th' intelligible world, cou'd say:
As learn'd (k) as the wild Irish are,
Or Sir AGRIPPA (l); for profound
And solid lying much renown'd. 540
And JACOB BEHMEN understood:
Knew many an amulet and charm,
That wou'd do neither good nor harm:
In ROSY-CRUCIAN (n) lore as learned, 545
As he that Vere adeptus earned.
He understood the speech of birds
As well as they themselves do words;
Cou'd tell what subtlest parrots mean,
That speak, and think contrary clean: 550
What Member 'tis of whom they talk,
When they cry, Rope, and walk, knave, walk.
He'd extract numbers out of matter,
And keep them in a glass, like water;
Of sov'reign pow'r to make men wise; 555
For drop'd in blear thick-sighted eyes,
They'd make them see in darkest night
Like owls, tho' purblind in the light.
By help of these (as he profess'd)
He had First Matter seen undress'd: 560
He took her naked all alone,
Before one rag of form was on.
The Chaos too he had descry'd,
And seen quite thro', or else he ly'd:
Not that of paste-board which men shew 565
For groats, at fair of Barthol'mew;
But its great grandsire, first o' the name,
Whence that and REFORMATION came;
Both cousin-germans, and right able
T' inveigle and draw in the rabble. 570
But Reformation was, some say,
O' th' younger house to Puppet-play.
He cou'd foretel whats'ever was
By consequence to come to pass;
As death of great men, alterations, 575
Diseases, battles, inundations.
All this, without th' eclipse o' th' sun,
Or dreadful comet, he hath done,
By inward light; away as good,
And easy to be understood; 580
But with more lucky hit than those
That use to make the stars depose,
Like Knights o' th' post, and falsely charge
Upon themselves what others forge:
As if they were consenting to 585
All mischiefs in the world men do:
Or, like the Devil, did tempt and sway 'em
To rogueries, and then betray 'em.
They'll search a planet's house, to know
Who broke and robb'd a house below: 590
Examine VENUS, and the MOON,
Who stole a thimble or a spoon;
And tho' they nothing will confess,
Yet by their very looks can guess,
And tell what guilty aspect bodes, 595
Who stole, and who receiv'd the goods.
They'll question MARS, and, by his look,
Detect who 'twas that nimm'd a cloke:
Make MERCURY confess, and 'peach
Those thieves which he himself did teach. 600
They'll find, i' th' physiognomies
O' th' planets, all men's destinies.;
Like him that took the doctor's bill,
And swallow'd it instead o' th' pill
Cast the nativity o' th' question, 605
And from positions to be guess'd on,
As sure as it' they knew the moment
Of natives birth, tell what will come on't.
They'll feel the pulses of the stars,
To find out agues, coughs, catarrhs; 610
And tell what crisis does divine
The rot in sheep, or mange in swine
In men, what gives or cures the itch;
What makes them cuckolds, poor or rich;
What gains or loses, hangs or saves; 615
What makes men great, what fools or knaves,
But not what wise; for only of those
The stars (they say) cannot dispose,
No more than can the Astrologians.
There they say right, and like true Trojans.
This RALPHO knew, and therefore took 620
The other course, of which we spoke.

Thus was the accomplish'd Squire endu'd
With gifts and knowledge, per'lous shrew'd.
Never did trusty Squire with Knight,
Or Knight with Squire, e'er jump more right. 625
Their arms and equipage did fit,
As well as virtues, parts, and wit.
Their valours too were of a rate;
And out they sally'd at the gate. 630
Few miles on horseback had they jogged,
But Fortune unto them turn'd dogged;
For they a sad adventure met,
Of which anon we mean to treat;
But ere we venture to unfold 635
Atchievements so resolv'd and bold,
We shou'd as learned poets use,
Invoke th' assistance of some muse:
However, criticks count it sillier
Than jugglers talking to familiar. 640
We think 'tis no great matter which
They're all alike; yet we shall pitch
On one that fits our purpose most
Whom therefore thus do we accost:

Thou that with ale, or viler liquors, 645
Did'st inspire WITHERS, PRYN (o), and VICKARS,
And force them, tho' it was in spite
Of nature and their stars, to write;
Who, as we find in sullen writs,
And cross-grain'd works of modern wits, 650
With vanity, opinion, want,
The wonder of the ignorant,
The praises of the author, penn'd
B' himself, or wit-insuring friend;
The itch of picture in the front, 655
With bays and wicked rhyme upon't;
All that is left o' th' forked hill,
To make men scribble without skill;
Canst make a poet spite of fate,
And teach all people to translate, 660
Tho' out of languages in which
They understand no part of speech;
Assist me but this once, I 'mplore,
And I shall trouble thee no more.

In western clime there is a town, 665
To those that dwell therein well known;
Therefore there needs no more be said here,
We unto them refer our reader;
For brevity is very good,
When w' are, or are not, understood. 670
To this town people did repair,
On days of market, or of fair,
And, to crack'd fiddle, and hoarse tabor,
In merriment did drudge and labor.
But now a sport more formidable 675
Had rak'd together village rabble:
'Twas an old way of recreating,
Which learned butchers call bear-baiting:
A bold advent'rous exercise,
With ancient heroes in high prize: 680
For authors do affirm it came
From Isthmian or Nemean game:
Others derive it from the bear
That's fix'd in northern hemisphere,
And round about the pole does make 685
A circle like a bear at stake,
That at the chain's end wheels about,
And overturns the rabble-rout.
For after solemn proclamation,
In the bear's name, (as is the fashion, 690
According to the law of arms,
To keep men from inglorious harms,)
That none presume to come so near
As forty foot of stake of bear,
If any yet be so fool-hardy, 695
T' expose themselves to vain jeopardy,
If they come wounded off, and lame,
No honour's got by such a maim;
Altho' the bear gain much, b'ing bound
In honour to make good his ground, 700
When he's engag'd, and takes no notice,
If any press upon him, who 'tis;
But let's them know, at their own cost,
That he intends to keep his post.
This to prevent, and other harms, 705
Which always wait on feats of arms,
(For in the hurry of a fray
'Tis hard to keep out of harm's way,)
Thither the Knight his course did steer,
To keep the peace 'twixt dog and bear; 710
As he believ'd he was bound to do
In conscience, and commission too;
And therefore thus bespoke the Squire.

We that (p) are wisely mounted higher
Than constables in curule wit,
When on tribunal bench we sit,
Like speculators shou'd foresee,
From Pharos of authority,
Portended mischiefs farther then
Low Proletarian tything-men: 720
And therefore being inform'd by bruit,
That dog and bear are to dispute;
For so of late men fighting name,
Because they often prove the same;
(For where the first does hap to be, 725
The last does coincidere;)
Quantum in nobis, have thought good,
To save th' expence of Christian blood,
And try if we, by mediation
Of treaty and accommodation, 730
Can end the quarrel and compose
The bloody duel without blows.
Are not our liberties, our lives,
The laws, religion and our wives,
Enough at once to lie at stake 735
For Cov'nant and the Cause's sake?
But in that quarrel dogs and bears,
As well as we must venture theirs
This feud, by Jesuits invented,
By evil counsel is fomented: 740
There is a MACHIAVILIAN plot,
(Tho' ev'ry Nare olfact is not,)
A deep design in't, to divide
The well-affected that confide,
By setting brother against brother, 745
To claw and curry one another.
Have we not enemies plus satis,
That Cane & Angue pejus hate us?
And shall we turn our fangs and claws
Upon our own selves, without cause? 750
That some occult design doth lie
In bloody (q) cynarctomachy,
Is plain enough to him that knows
How Saints lead brothers by the nose.
I wish myself a pseudo-prophet, 755
But sure some mischief will come of it;
Unless by providential wit,
Or force, we (r) averruncate it.
For what design, what interest,
Can beast have to encounter beast? 760
They fight for no espoused cause,
Frail privilege, fundamental laws,
Not for a thorough reformation,
Nor covenant, nor protestation,
Nor liberty of consciences, 765
Nor Lords and Commons ordinances;
Nor for the church, nor for church-lands,
To get them in their own no hands;
Nor evil counsellors to bring
To justice that seduce the King; 770
Nor for the worship of us men,
Though we have done as much for them.
Th' AEgyptians worshipp'd dogs, and for
Their faith made internecine war.
Others ador'd a rat, and some 775
For that church suffer'd martyrdom.
The (s) Indians fought for the truth
Of th' elephant and monkey's tooth,
And many, to defend that faith,
Fought it out mordicus to death. 780
But no beast ever was so slight,
For man, as for his God, to fight.
They have more wit, alas! and know
Themselves and us better than so.
But we, who only do infuse 785
The rage in them like (t) Boute-feus;
'Tis our example that instils
In them th' infection of our ills.
For, as some late philosophers.
Have well observ'd, beasts, that converse 790
With man, take after him, as hogs
Get pigs all the year, and bitches dogs.
Just so, by our example, cattle
Learn to give one another battle.
We read, in NERO's time, the heathen, 795
When they destroy'd the Christian brethren,
Did sew them in the skins of bears,
And then set dogs about their ears:
From thence, no doubt, th' invention came
Of this lewd antichristian game. 800

To this, quoth RALPHO, Verily
The point seems very plain to me.
It is an antichristian game,
Unlawful both in thing and name.
First, for the name: the word, bear-baiting 805
Is carnal, and of man's creating:
For certainly there's no such word
In all the scripture on record;
Therefore unlawful, and a sin;
And so is (secondly) the thing. 810
A vile assembly 'tis, that can
No more be prov'd by scripture than
Provincial, classic, national;
Mere human-creature cobwebs all.
Thirdly, it is idolatrous; 815
For when men run a whoring thus
With their inventions, whatsoe'er
The thing be, whether dog or bear,
It is idolatrous and pagan,
No less than worshipping of DAGON. 820

Quoth HUDIBRAS, I smell a rat;
RALPHO, thou dost prevaricate:
For though the thesis which thou lay'st
Be true ad amussim, as thou say'st;
(For that bear-baiting should appear 825
Jure divino lawfuller
Than synods are, thou dost deny,
Totidem verbis; so do I;)
Yet there's a fallacy in this;
For if by sly HOMAEOSIS, 830
Tussis pro crepitu, an art
Under a cough to slur a f-t
Thou wou'dst sophistically imply,
Both are unlawful, I deny.

And I (quoth RALPHO) do not doubt 835
But bear-baiting may be made out,
In gospel-times, as lawful as is
Provincial or parochial classis;
And that both are so near of kin,
And like in all, as well as sin, 840
That put them in a bag, and shake 'em,
Yourself o' th' sudden would mistake 'em,
And not know which is which, unless
You measure by their wickedness:
For 'tis not hard t'imagine whether 845
O' th' two is worst; tho' I name neither.

Quoth HUDIBRAS, Thou offer'st much,
But art not able to keep touch.
Mira de lente, as 'tis i' th' adage,
Id est, to make a leek a cabbage; 850
Thou'lt be at best but such a bull,
Or shear-swine, all cry, and no wool;
For what can synods have at all
With bear that's analogical?
Or what relation has debating 855
Of church-affairs with bear-baiting?
A just comparison still is
Of things ejusdem generis;
And then what genus rightly doth
Include and comprehend them both? 860
If animal both of us may
As justly pass for bears as they;
For we are animals no less,
Altho' of different specieses.
But, RALPHO, this is not fit place 865
Nor time to argue out the case:
For now the field is not far off,
Where we must give the world a proof
Of deeds, not words, and such as suit
Another manner of dispute; 870
A controversy that affords
Actions for arguments, not words;
Which we must manage at a rate
Of prowess and conduct adequate
To what our place and fame doth promise, 875
And all the godly expect from us,
Nor shall they be deceiv'd, unless
We're slurr'd and outed by success;
Success, the mark no mortal wit,
Or surest hand can always hit: 880
For whatsoe'er we perpetrate,
We do but row, we're steer'd by Fate,
Which in success oft disinherits,
For spurious causes, noblest merits.
Great actions are not always true sons 885
Of great and mighty resolutions;
Nor do th' boldest attempts bring forth
Events still equal to their worth;
But sometimes fail, and, in their stead,
Fortune and cowardice succeed. 890
Yet we have no great cause to doubt;
Our actions still have borne us out;
Which tho' they're known to be so ample,
We need not copy from example.
We're not the only persons durst 895
Attempt this province, nor the first.
In northern clime a val'rous Knight
Did whilom kill his bear in fght,
And wound a fiddler; we have both
Of these the objects of our wroth, 900
And equal fame and glory from
Th' attempt of victory to come.
'Tis sung, there is a valiant (u) Mamaluke
In foreign land, yclep'd -
To whom we have been oft compar'd 905
For person, parts; address, and beard;
Both equally reputed stout,
And in the same cause both have fought:
He oft in such attempts as these
Came off with glory and success; 910
Nor will we fail in th' execution,
For want of equal resolution.
Honour is like a (w) widow, won
With brisk attempt and putting on;
With ent'ring manfully, and urging; 915
Not slow approaches, like a virgin.

'Tis said, as yerst the Phrygian Knight,
So ours with rusty steel did smite
His Trojan horse, and just as much
He mended pace upon the touch; 920
But from his empty stomach groan'd
Just as that hollow beast did sound,
And angry answer'd from behind,
With brandish'd tail and blast of wind.
So have I seen, with armed heel, 925
A wight bestride a Common-weal;
While still the more he kick'd and spurr'd,
The less the sullen jade has stirr'd.
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Notes to Part I, Canto I.

1 a When civil a dudgeon, &c.] Dudgeon. Who made the
alterations in the last Edition of this poem I know not, but they
are certainly sometimes for the worse; and I cannot believe the
Author would have changed a word so proper in that place as
dudgeon for that of fury, as it is in the last Edition. To take in
dudgeon, is inwardly to resent some injury or affront; a sort of
grumbling in the gizzard, and what is previous to actual fury.

24 b That could as well, &c.] Bind over to the Sessions as being
a Justice of the Peace in his County, as well as Colonel of a
Regiment of Foot in the Parliament's army, and a committee-Man.

38 c As MONTAIGNE, &c.] Montaigne, in his Essays,
supposes his cat thought him a fool, for losing his time in
playing with her.

62 d To make some, &c.] Here again is an alteration without
any amendment; for the following lines,

And truly, so he was, perhaps,
Not as a Proselyte, but for Claps,

Are thus changed,

And truly so, perhaps, he was;
'Tis many a pious Christian's case.

The Heathens had an odd opinion, and have a strange reason
why Moses imposed the law of circumcision on the Jews,
which, how untrue soever, I will give the learned reader an
account of without translation, as I find it in the annotations
upon Horace, wrote by my worthy and learned friend Mr.
William Baxter, the great restorer of the ancient and promoter of
modern learning.
Hor. Sat. 9. Sermon. Lib. I. -
Curtis; quia pellicula imminuti sunt; quia Moses Rex
Judoeorum, cujus Legibus reguntur, negligentia PHIMOZEIS
medicinaliter exsectus est, & ne soles esset notabi omnes
circumcidi voluit. Vet. Schol. Vocem. - (PHIMOZEIS qua
inscitia Librarii exciderat reposuimus ex conjectura, uti &
medicinaliter exsectus pro medicinalis effectus quae nihil erant.)
Quis miretur ejusmodi convicia homini Epicureo atque Pagano
excidisse? Jure igitur Henrico Glareano Diaboli Organum
videtur. Etiam Satyra Quinta haec habet: Constat omnia
miracula certa ratione fieri, de quibus Epicurei prudentissime
disputant. [Circumcised: Moses the King of the Jews, by whose
laws they are ruled, and whose foreskin overhung (the tip of his
penis), had this blockage carelessly medicinally removed, and
not wishing to be alone wanted them all to be circumcised.
(We have tentatively restored the word BLOCKAGE, which the
scribe's incompetence has omitted, and substituted medically
removed for carried out by a doctor which was never there.)
Who shall wonder that this kind of cutting caused an outcry by
Epicureans and Pagans? It can be seen therefore, why Henricus
Glareanus judged it an implement of the devil. So the Fifth
Satire has it: It is certain that every miracle can be fitted into the
philosophical systems which the Epicureans most carefully

66 e Profoundly skill'd, &c.] Analytick is a part of logic, that
teaches to decline and construe reason, as grammar does words.

93 f A Babylonish, &c.] A confusion of languages, such as
some of our modern Virtuosi used to express themselves in.

103 g Or CERBERUS himself, &c.] Cerberus; a name which
poets give a dog with three heads, which they feigned door-
keeper of Hell, that caressed the unfortunate souls sent thither,
and devoured them that would get out again; yet Hercules tied
him up, and made him follow. This dog with three heads
denotes the past, the present, and the time to come; which
receive, and, as it were, devour all things. Hercules got the
better of him, which shews that heroic actions are always
victorious over time, because they are present in the memory of

115 h That had the, &c.] Demosthenes, who is said to have had
a defect in his pronunciation, which he cured by using to speak
with little stones in his mouth.

120 i Than TYCHO BRAHE, &c.] Tycho Brahe was an
eminent Danish mathematician. Quer. in Collier's Dictionary, or

131 k Whatever Sceptick, &c.] Sceptick. Pyrrho was the chief
of the Sceptick Philosophers, and was at first, as Apollodorus
saith, a painter, then became the hearer of Driso, and at last the
disciple of Anaxagoras, whom he followed into India, to see the
Gymnosophists. He pretended that men did nothing but by
custom; there was neither honesty nor dishonesty, justice nor
injustice, good nor evil. He was very solitary, lived to be ninety
years old, was highly esteemed in his country, and created chief
priest. He lived in the time of Epicurus and Theophrastus, about
the 120th Olympiad. His followers were called Phyrrhonians;
besides which they were named the Ephecticks and
Aphoreticks, but more generally Scepticks. This sect made their
chiefest good to consist in a sedateness of mind, exempt from
all passions; in regulating their opinions, and moderating their
passions, which they called Ataxia and Metriopathia; and in
suspending their judgment in regard of good and evil, truth or
falsehood, which they called Epechi. Sextus Empiricus, who
lived in the second century, under the Emperor Antoninus Pius,
writ ten books against the mathematicians or astrologers, and
three of the Phyrrhonian opinion. The word is derived from the
Greek SKEPTESZAI, quod est, considerare, speculare. [To
consider or speculate]

143 l He cou'd reduce, &c.] The old philosophers thought to
extract notions out of natural things, as chymists do spirits and
essences; and, when they had refined them into the nicest
subtilties, gave them as insignificant names as those operators
do their extractions: But (as Seneca says) the subtiler things are
they are but the nearer to nothing. So are all their definitions of
things by acts the nearer to nonsense.

147 m Where Truth, &c.] Some authors have mistaken truth for
a real thing, when it is nothing but a right method of putting
those notions or images of things (in the understanding of man)
into the same and order that their originals hold in nature, and
therefore Aristotle says Unumquodque sicut habet secundum
esse, ita se habet secundum veritatem. Met. L. ii. [As every
thing has a secondary essence, therefore it has a secondary

148 n Like words congeal'd, &c.] Some report in Nova Zembla,
and Greenland, mens' words are wont to be frozen in the air,
and at the thaw may heard.

151 In School-Divinity as able,
As o he that Hight, Irrefragable, &c.]
Here again is another alteration of three or lines, as I think, for
the worse.
Some specific epithets were added to the title of some famous
doctors, as Angelicus, Irrefragabilis, Subtilis, [Angelic,
Unopposable, Discriminating] &c. Vide Vossi Etymolog.
Baillet Jugemens de Scavans, & Possevin's Apparatus

153 p A Second THOMAS or at once,
To name them all, another DUNCE.
Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican friar, was born in 1224, and
studied at Cologne and Paris. He new modelled the school-
divinity, and was therefore called the Angelic Doctor, and Eagle
of Divines. The most illustrious persons of his time were
ambitious of his friendship, and put a high value on his merits,
so that they offered him bishopricks, which he refused with as
much ardor as others seek after them. He died in the fiftieth year
of his age, and was canonized by Pope John XII. We have his
works in eighteen volumes, several times printed.

Johannes Dunscotus was a very learned man, who lived about
the end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth
century. The English and Scotch strive which of them shall have
the honour of his birth. The English say, he was born in
Northumberland: the Scots alledge he was born at Duns, in the
Mers, the neighbouring county to Northumberland, and hence
was called Dunscotus. Moreri, Buchanan, and other Scotch
historians, are of this opinion, and for proof cite his epitaph:

Scotia me genuit, Anglia suscepit,
Gallia edocuit, Germania tenet.
[Scotland bore me, England reared me,
France instructed me, Germany kept me.]

He died at Cologne, Novem. 8. 1308. In the Supplement to Dr.
Cave's Historia Literaria, he is said to be extraordinary learned
in physicks, metaphysicks, mathematicks, and astronomy; that
his fame was so great when at Oxford, that 30,000 scholars
came thither to hear his lectures: that when at Paris, his
arguments and authority carried it for the immaculate
conception of the Blessed Virgin; so that they appointed a
festival on that account, and would admit us scholars to degrees
but such as were of this mind. He was a great opposer of
Thomas Aquinas's doctrine; and, for being a very acute
logician, was called Doctor Subtilis; [Discriminating (or,
literally, Slender) Teacher] which was the reason also, that an
old punster always called him the Lathy Doctor.

158 q As tough as, &c.] Sorbon was the first and most
considerable college of the university of Paris, founded in time
reign of St. Lewis, by Robert Sorbon, which name is sometimes
given to the whole University of Paris, which was founded,
about the year 741, by Charlemagne, at the persuasion of the
learned Alcuinus, who was one of the first professors there;
since which time it has been very famous. This college has been
rebuilt with an extraordinary magnificence, at the charge of
Cardinal Richlieu, and contains lodgings for thirty-six doctors,
who are called the Society of Sorbon. Those which are received
among them before they have received their doctor's degree are
only said to be of the Hospitality of Sorbon. Claud. Hemeraus
de Acad. Paris. Spondan in Annal.

173 r he knew, &c.] There is nothing more ridiculous than the
various opinions of authors about the seat of Paradise. Sir.
Walter Raleigh has taken a great deal of pains to collect them,
in the beginning of his History of the World; where those, who
are unsatisfied, may be fully informed.

180 s By a High-Dutch, &c.] Goropius Becanus endeavours to
prove that High-Dutch was the language that Adam and Eve
spoke in Paradise.

181 t If either of &c.] Adam and Eve being made, and not
conceived and formed in the womb had no navels as some
learned men have supposed, because they had no need of them.

182 u Who first made, &c.] Musick is said to be invented by
Pythagoras, who first found out the proportion of notes from
the sounds of hammers upon an anvil

232 w Like MAHOMET's &c.) Mahomet had a tame dove, that
used to pick seeds out of his ear that it might be thought to
whisper and inspire him. His ass was so intimate with him, that
the Mahometans believed it carried him to heaven, and stays
there with him to bring him back again.

257 x It was Monastick, and did grow
In holy Orders by strict Vow.
He made a vow never to cut his beard until the Parliament had
subdued the King; of which order of phanatick votaries there
were many in those times.

281 y So learned TALIACOTIUS &c.] Taliacotius was an
Italian surgeon, that found out a way to repair lost and decayed
noses. This Taliacotius was chief surgeon to the Great Duke of
Tuscany, and wrote a treatise, De Curtis Membris, [Of Cut-off
Parts] which he dedicates to his great master wherein he not
only declares the models of his wonderful operations in
restoring of lost members, but gives you cuts of the very
instruments and ligatures he made use of therein; from hence
our Author (cum poetica licentia [with poetic licence]) has
taken his simile.

289 z For as AENEAS, &c.] AEneas was the son of Anchises
and Venus; a Trojan, who, after long travels, came to Italy, and
after the death of his father-in-law, Latinus, was made king of
Latium, and reigned three years. His story is too long to insert
here, and therefore I refer you to Virgil's AEneids. Troy being
laid in ashes, he took his aged father Anchises upon his back,
and rescued him from his enemies. But being too solicitous for
his son and household gods, he lost his wife Creusa; which Mr.
Dryden, in his excellent translation, thus expresseth.

Haste my dear father (tis no time to wait,)
And load my shoulders with a willing freight.
Whate'er befals, your life shall be my care;
One death, or one deliv'rance, we will share.
My hand shall lead our little son; and you,
My faithful consort, shall our steps pursue.

337 a - For ARTHUR, &c.] Who this Arthur was and whether
any ever reigned in Britain, has been doubted heretofore, and is
by some to this very day. However, the history of him, which
makes him one of the nine worthies of the world, is a subject,
sufficient for the Poet to be pleasant upon.

359 b - Toledo trusty, &c.] The capital city of New Castile,
Spain, with an archbishopric and primacy. It was very famous,
amongst other things, for tempering the best metal for swords,
as Damascus was and perhaps may be still.

389 c But left the trade, as many more
Have lately done, &c.
Oliver Cromwell and Colonel Pride had been both brewers.

433 d That CAESAR's Horse, who, as Fame goes,
Had corns upon his Feet and Toes.
Julius Caesar had a horse with feet like a man's. Utebatur equo
insigni; pedibus prope humanis, modum digitorum ungulis
fissis. [He rode a horse with this distinction; it had feet like a
man's, having the hooves split like toes] Suet. in Jul. Cap. 61.

467 c The mighty Tyrian Queen, that gain'd
With subtle Shreds a Tract of Land.
Dido, Queen of Carthage, who bought as much land as she
could compass with an ox's hide, which she cut into small
thongs, and cheated the owner of so much ground as served her
to build Carthage upon.

476 f As the bold, &c.] AEneas, whom Virgil reports to use a
golden bough for a pass to hell; and taylors call that place Hell
where they put all they steal.

526 g As three, &c.] Read the great Geographical Dictionary,
under that word.

520 h In Magick, &c.] Talisman is a device to destroy any sort
of vermin, by casting their images in metal, in a precise minute,
when the stars are perfectly inclined to do them all the mischief
they can. This has been experienced by some modern Virtuosi
upon rats, mice, and fleas, and found (as they affirm) to produce
the effect with admirable success.

Raymund Lully interprets cabal, out of the Arabic, to signify
Scientia superabundans; which his commentator, Cornelius
Agrippa, by over-magnifying, has rendered a very superfluous

532 i As far as, &c.] The author of Magia Adamica endeavours
to prove the learning of the ancient Magi to be derived from that
knowledge which God himself taught Adam in Paradise before
the fall.

535 And much of Terra Incognita,
The intelligible World cou'd say.
The intelligible world is a kind of Terra Del Fuego, or
Psittacorum Regio[Land of Parrots], &c. discovered only by the
philosophers; of which they talk, like parrots, what they do not

538 k learned &c.] No nation in the world is more addicted to
this occult philosophy than the Wild-Irish are, as appears by the
whole practice of their lives; of which see Camden in his
description of Ireland.

539 l Or Sir AGRIPPA, &c.] They who would know more of
Sir Cornelius Agrippa, here meant, may consult the Great

And JACOB BEHMEN understood.
Anthroposophus is only a compound Greek word, which
signifies a man that is wise in the knowledge of men, as is used
by some anonymous author to conceal his true name.
Dr. Floud was a sort of an English Rosy-crucian, whose works
are extant, and as intelligible as those of Jacob Behmen.

545 n In ROSY-CRUCIAN Lore as learned
As he that Vere Adeptus earned.
The fraternity of the Rosy-crucians is very like the sect of the
ancient Gnostici, who called them selves so from the excellent
learning they pretended to, although they were really the most
ridiculous sots of mankind.
Vere Adeptus is one that has commenced in their phanatick

646 o Thou that with Ale or viler Liquors,
Didst inspire WITHERS, PRYN, and VICARS.
This Vicars was a man of as great interest and authority in the
late Reformation as Pryn or Withers, and as able a poet. He
translated Virgil's AEneids into as horrible Travesty, in earnest,
as the French Scaroon did in burlesque, and was only outdone
in his way by the politic author of Oceana.

714 p We that are, &c.] This speech is set down as it was
delivered by the Knight, in his own words: But since it is below
the gravity of heroical poetry to admit of humour, but all men
are obliged to speak wisely alike, and too much of so
extravagant a folly would become tedious and impertinent, the
rest of his harangues have only his sense expressed in other
words, unless in some few places, where his own words could
not be so well avoided.

753 q In bloody, &c.] Cynarctomachy signifies no thing in the
world but a fight between dogs and bears; though both the
learned and ignorant agree that in such words very great
knowledge is contained: And our Knight, as one, or both, of
these, was of the same opinion.

758 r Or Force, &c.] Averruncate: Another of the same kind,
which, though it appear ever so learned and profound, means
nothing else but the weeding of corn.

777 s The Indians fought for the Truth
Of th' Elephant and Monkey's Tooth.
The History of the White Elephant and the Monkey's-Tooth,
which the Indians adored, is written by Mons. le Blanc. This
monkey's tooth was taken by the Portuguese from those that
worshipped it; and though they offered a vast ransom for it, yet
the Christians were persuaded by their priests rather to burn it.
But as soon as the fire was kindled, all the people present were
not able to endure the horrible stink that came from it, as if the
fire had been made of the same ingredients with which seamen
use to compose that kind of granados which they call stinkards.

786 t The Rage, &c.] Boute-feus is a French word, and therefore
it were uncivil to suppose any English person (especially of
quality) ignorant of it, or so ill-bred as to need an exposition.

903 u 'Tis sung, &c.] Mamaluke is the name of the militia of the
Sultans of Egypt. It signified a servant or soldier. They were
commonly captives taken from amongst the Christians, and
instructed in military discipline, and did not marry. Their power
was great; for besides that the Sultans were chosen out of their
body, they disposed of the most important offices of the
kingdom. They were formidable about 200 years; 'till at last
Selim, Sultan of the Turks, routed them, and killed their Sultan,
near Aleppo, 1516, and so put an end to the empire of
Mamalukes, which had lasted 267 years.
No question but the rhime to Mamaluke was meant Sir Samuel
Luke, of whom in the Preface.

913 w Honour is like, &c.] Our English proverbs are not
impertinent to this purpose:

He that woos a Maid, must seldom come in her sight:
But he that woos a Widow, must woo her Day and Night.
He that woos a Maid, must feign, lye, and flatter:
But he that woos a Widow, must down with his Breeches, and at her.

This proverb being somewhat immodest, Mr Ray says he would
not have inserted it in his collection, but that he met with it in a
little book, intitled, the Quakers' Spiritual Court Proclaimed;
written by Nathaniel Smith, Student in Physic; wherein the
author mentions it as counsel given him by Hilkiah Bedford, an
eminent Quaker in London, who would have had him to have
married a rich widow, in whose house he lodged. In case he
could get her, this Nathaniel Smith had promised Hilkiah a
chamber gratis. The whole narrative is worth the reading.


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